Arms Embargo Agreement

Tehran, Iran – A conventional international arms embargo imposed on Iran 13 years ago by the UN Security Council will officially end Sunday. “The Islamic Republic of Iran has shown once again that the United States is not as much a superpower as it likes to say,” he said, adding that the end of the arms embargo was a “historic defeat” for the United States. NEW YORK (Reuters) – The U.N. Security Council is preparing to vote this week on a U.S. proposal to extend an arms embargo on Iran. Iran`s armed forces have long since spilled into waste. Although America and Britain sold advanced weapons to the pro-Western Shah in the 1960s and 1970s, the theocracy that followed lost between half and two-thirds of that equipment in a brutal eight-year war with Iraq. The departure of Western technicians and an informal arms embargo prevented the Iranians from obtaining or replacing the remaining arrears or replacements. In 2007, the United Nations imposed a formal arms embargo amid tension over Iran`s nuclear program. In practice, however, Iran`s economy remains crippled by heavy U.S. sanctions and other nations could avoid arms trafficking with Tehran for fear of U.S. financial retaliation. The Trump administration has warned that any arms sales to Iran or exports from Iran will be punished.

Although the United States withdrew from the nuclear agreement, Washington threatened to use a provision of the agreement to trigger the return of all UN sanctions against Iran if the Security Council did not renounce the arms embargo. Second, Iran`s internal crisis is a major obstacle to the acquisition of large-scale Russian weapons, especially since Moscow has already rejected Tehran`s request to purchase weapons on credit. Iran cannot afford to buy large weapons and bear the costs of maintaining advanced weapons systems, including training and spare parts. Indeed, Iran`s difficult economic situation remains the main obstacle to obtaining large and expensive weapons. It is simply not possible for a country facing a crippling economic downturn to afford expensive weapons such as the S-400 or a squadron of combat aircraft. For example, the initial cost of a squadron of 18-24 modern fighters can be as high as $2 billion. In addition, any new type of military armament and equipment requires specific training of personnel, spare parts, maintenance and integration into existing command and control systems, which could cost more than the equipment itself.

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Species responses to climate change is a rapidly evolving research field, however, much of our progress is being made in independent research areas: e.g. understanding the process vs responding to the implications, terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, global meta-analyses vs in depth species-specific approaches. This interdisciplinary conference develops connections between these parallel streams, and across temporal and spatial scales.

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