The reference tool also provides an overview of the circumstances that could create differences of opinion between the purchasing authority and the project company and provides important practical information to address these issues. It is important that the reference tool also address issues that are not generally addressed under a P3 contract, but which are important to the contracting authority when it comes to managing the implementation of a project, for example. B the engagement of public sector stakeholders. Throughout history, governments have used such a mixture of public and private efforts.   Muhammad Ali of Egypt used “concessions” in the early 1800s to obtain public works at minimal cost, while dealership companies made most of the profits from projects such as railways and dams.  Much of the first infrastructure in the United States was built through public-private partnerships. These include the Lancaster Turnpike, Pennsylvania Highway, which was established in 1792, a first steamboat line from New York to New Jersey in 1808; many of the railways, including the nation`s first railroad, were chartered in New Jersey in 1815; and most modern power grids. [Citation required] In Newfoundland, beginning in 1898, Robert Gillespie Reid was responsible for the operation of the railways for fifty years, when they were originally to become his property at the end of the period. [Citation required] However, the late 20th and early 21st century saw a clear trend towards governments around the world that made greater use of the various PPP agreements.  This trend appears to have reversed since the 2008 global financial crisis.  Cost-effectiveness assessment procedures were incorporated into the PFI and its Australian and Canadian counterparts beginning in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
:D (i) study of Chapter 4A 2012 showed that the framework for value for money as an effective method of evaluating PPP proposals remained insufficient.  The problem is that we do not know what the catchy term “value for money” means in practice and in technical details. A Scottish accountant called it “mumbo-jumbo technocratic.” : Chapter 4 There is no uniform definition of what the PPP is and the type of contracts that are generally considered PPP, but the definitions used in national laws, development bodies and academic literature provide some general guidelines.