We believe that this breadth and specificity reflects a population of nurses who are particularly socially and culturally sensitive and who recognize the unique characteristics of patients across broad ethnicity or racial categories. We do not know whether a similar specificity and breadth of responses would be obtained if our questionnaire were given to different health professionals or administered in more rural or socially more conservative communities and agencies. However, this could be an interesting area that should be examined in a future study. A key limitation of our research is our targeted choice not to include a demographic questionnaire, as we wanted to anonymize our study and encourage participants to be completely honest in their answers. Later, by analyzing the data, we found that it would have been particularly useful to know whether respondents` cultural, linguistic and pedagogical characteristics, age or religious ties were related to their perceptions and experiences. Participants also brought rich and open descriptions of their cross-cultural experience with patients, their knowledge and challenges. Qualitative responses show an astonishing breadth and depth of cultural sensitivity and creativity, as well as the frustrations and challenges of managing linguistic, behavioural and family differences. These results will be reported in a future article. Participants in this study found some resources very useful, including colleagues, translators, clergymen, and communication through documentation in medical records. But what is striking, if we consider the question of the resources needed, is the very clear message that nurses want more training and more translators. These are areas in which health authorities can immediately investigate.
We can expand translation services. We recommend that efforts be made to identify the most effective education interventions and training approaches to promote cultural sensitivity. Participants in this study specifically stressed that more experience of different cultures would be particularly useful. Sensitivity to cultural needs, beliefs and values, including in communication, is essential to the effectiveness of care interventions.12 Communication is the central factor in cross-cultural care13 One of the most obvious challenges arises when a nurse and a patient do not speak the same language. . . .